Globalization has changed the purpose of education. In response to the demands of an increasingly complex, nuanced, and connected world, schools in the United States offer a variety of global experiences for students. These approaches seek to develop students’ global competencies. One way these competencies can be met is to globalize the teaching and learning of U.S. History.
Additionally, we hope that the project develops your advocacy for this approach to teaching U.S. History. Ultimately, by using this “global turn” you will better prepare your students to succeed in the future.
For an overview of the resource, watch this screencast:
“A more global framework creates new perspectives, and some fresh challenges, making American history a livelier experience and, of course, linking it to other history courses in a less fragmented way. Ultimately, I would suggest, a global approach to American history lets us deal with three key, and difficult, questions – important ones, but tough ones as well.”
I hope you enjoy and utilize this resource. It will go through monthly updates throughout 2016. If you would like to contribute to the resource, please reach out through the U.S, in Global Context feedback area.
I love going to farmers’ markets. I try to buy from a variety of farms in order to spread my support around. I also love Oliver Wendell Holmes 1919 dissent statement in Abrams v. United States. In it he invokes the power an individual can have among the collective. He notes:
“Persecution for the expression of opinions seems to me perfectly logical. If you have no doubt of your premises or your power and want a certain result with all your heart you naturally express your wishes in law and sweep away all opposition…But when men have realized that time has upset many fighting faiths, they may come to believe even more than they believe the very foundations of their own conduct that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas. . . . The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out.”
In short, Holmes believes that “the ‘marketplace of ideas’ is the foundation of the constitutional system, not merely the First Amendment, and efforts to suppress opinions by force therefore contradict a fundamental principle of the Constitution.”
Any marketplace of ideas can be competitive, risky, rewarding, and collaborative. What happens when we apply this principle to the field of education… on a global level?
TES is what happens!
The English based Times Education Supplement (TES) is dedicated to supporting the world’s teachers. Their mission “is to enable great teaching by helping educators find the tools and technology they need to excel, supporting them throughout their career and professional development.”
Additionally, TES is “home to the world’s largest online community of teachers with 7.3 million registered users… this network is one of the fastest growing of any profession globally, helping support, guide and inspire educators around the world.”
I was introduced to TES during last November’s Global Education Conference (see that presentation below). I promptly became a member of TES (check out my TES page here) and contacted them to find out more. From there, I met Gabe Barker. Gabe was happy to sit for an interview about the education marketplace known as TES. His insights follow. Welcome to the new marketplace – Enjoy!
Hi Gabe. Tell us about how you got involved in TES and explain the organization’s vision.
After teaching for a few years and then getting my graduate degree in education technology, I was looking for jobs that would keep me in that field. I saw an ad for the position on EdSurge and jumped at the opportunity to help as many teachers as possible to share, sell, and create teaching materials online.The high-level vision of TES is quite simple – help teachers teach. We strive to support teachers in real, tangible ways. Since teachers are so strapped for time, they often can’t design every worksheet, lesson, handout, and quiz needed to teach a successful class and still have enough energy for their students in the classroom. Moreover, now that most states require classes to align with Common Core State Standards, teachers in the U.S. are in need of even more resources that they know are effective with real students. Since teachers are the ones in class every day, they know best what materials actually increase student learning outcomes. TES works to meet that need. Every resource in the marketplace is created by a teacher for a teacher. For every resource purchased in the U.S., the teacher who created the resource gets 100% of the profit because we value the hard work that teachers put in to make those materials.In addition to this dynamic marketplace, we host Blendspace, a lesson-building product where teaching resources can be freely integrated and implemented; and Wikispaces, an open classroom management platform that facilitates student-teacher communication and collaboration.
2. What are some of the successes of TES and what is ahead for 2016?
Our greatest success this past year was launching the U.S. marketplace in August 2015, and it’s been a fast and furious five months since then. Shortly after this launch, we integrated Blendspace’s lesson builder and our marketplace platform so that educators can instantly incorporate the resources they discover on TES into digital lessons. We view this integration as a move toward making it even easier and effective for teachers to implement TES resources and engage students in differentiated, flipped, and/or group learning.Since we also care deeply about teachers and their experiences with TES, we provide personalized attention to authors via our content team (made up of all former teachers like myself!). In addition to that support, we strive to foster communication about best teaching and TES author practices through our Authors’ Hub and Teachers’ Lounge guest blog. We also offer exclusive Pinterest collections and boards filled with resources created by our educator community. As we move into 2016, we are launching the Teacher Advisory Board and the Ambassador Program in the US. The Teacher Advisory Board is composed of a small group of leaders in US education and the Ambassadors Program consists of teachers in the US and Canada. The Teacher Advisory Board is expected to give us insight into big trends in education, and the Ambassadors will provide product feedback and help out on various projects and initiatives (e.g., our guest blog, videos, etc). We have both the Teacher Advisory Board and Ambassador Program to better understand teachers’ perspectives, from their experiences with our products to broader issues impacting the education community.
3. What makes your program unique in the space of global citizenship education?
While most of my previous answers have focused on the US marketplace, it’s important to note that TES is truly a global platform. In our marketplace, teachers and other educators from around the world can discover and share innovative teaching techniques and resources. Essentially, TES helps teachers incorporate global content and perspectives into local lessons, which works to increase global collaboration and further “flatten” the world of education. Furthermore, by using global content in their lessons, teachers help their students gain new insights about different parts of the world.
4. What are the best ways for teachers/schools to get involved?
It’s easy for teachers and schools to get involved with TES. The first step is to create a free account and search tes.com<http://tes.com><http://tes.com> for resources to try out with students. Schools can encourage team leaders to test resources from TES, and help other teachers use resources in the classroom. Additionally, individual teachers can become authors by uploading materials that they’ve created for their classrooms and making them available in the marketplace. They can either share their materials for free or sell them to earn 100% royalty. Moreover, we’re always looking for new teaching perspectives to share with our community. Teachers can submit a blog post or an article for publication in our guest blog.
5. What are some examples of feedback you have received on the teacher resource component of TES?
One of the best parts of my job is the daily communication and feedback I have with teachers in our community. We are thankful that we receive so much feedback from teachers! Here are a few gems:
“The uploader on TES resources is incredibly user-friendly and easy!! Thanks for this service!” – a seller of Spanish resources on TES
“I like the personal touch at TES which I haven’t had from other online marketplaces…it feels like I’m noticed and recognized.” – a Social Studies teacher on TES
“Thank you for your marketplace and always being ready to help!! I did the happy dance when I saw my sales this morning. :)” – An English Language Arts Teacher on TES
6. It has been a pleasure. What final words do you have for readers?
Teachers are some of the hardest working and most passionate professionals, and they don’t receive recognition often enough about their value and impact on students in their classrooms. TES provides a venue to help alleviate some of the stresses on teachers’ time, including finding effective resources and creating digital lessons, and to elevate and share their teaching practices with other educators around the world. Essentially, we hope to make a difference in teachers’ lives, so they can continue making a difference in students’ lives. We’re always open to feedback, and look forward to working with you!
The TES Presentation that Inspired Me…
During the 2015 Global Education Conference (please get involved with this) Jim Knight, Chief Education Adviser at TES was a keynote speaker. As a former Cabinet minister in the Labour Government, Minister for Schools and Learners, and member of the Privy Council and the House of Lords, Jim Knight has skills in decision making, communication, media handling and strategic policy, and has unrivalled expertise in the inter-relationship between education, skills and employment policy given his ministerial experience. He also has a current understanding of the potential use of digital technology in the delivery of public services. See his presentation below.
Happy Martin Luther King Jr. day. My 2013 post framed Dr. King not merely as an American citizen, but rather as a global citizen… a concept that is widely used today in education and beyond. In a 1979, Harry Belafonte performed the song “Turn the World Around” on the Muppet show emphasizing the power of knowing, not otherizing, people and recognizing the agency and positive results that engagement can foster. Watch the video below and enjoy!
How great is that?
In preparation for the segment, “designers at The Muppet Workshop did background research on African masks, to serve as the chorus. While these would be patterned very closely on real African masks, Jim Henson was very particular about selecting the final designs, since as Belafonte recalled, “he didn’t want to cause offense by choosing masks that would have some religious or national significance.”
Well done Mr. Henson. And although some people may dismiss this as political correctness, an error in application of that term, I consider this understanding to be an example of global citizenship in practice.
So, what about today in 2016? Currently, there are a range of global citizen programs available for educators, schools, and communities to select from in order to bolster the global education experiences students have. One program that stands out and should be explored by you is “Global Concerns Classroom.” In their own words:
Global Concerns Classroom (GCC) is an innovative global education program that seeks to raise awareness of current international humanitarian issues in U.S. youth and to empower them to take meaningful action. Through dynamic resources, student engagement programs, and professional development for educators, GCC prepares youth to gain the knowledge and skills needed to be globally competent for the 21st century.
Very compelling indeed! At a conference this past November, I had the pleasure of meeting GCC Education Officer, Margi Bhatt. We reconnected in the new year and discussed GCC and global education. Margi’s insights about GCC’s vision, resources, and her own work are provided below. Be sure to connect with her and explore how GCC can contribute to your school and class.
1) Tell us about how you got involved in GCC.
After finishing my Master’s at Teachers College in International Education Development, I was eagerly seeking a position at an education NGO in New York City that not only captured my interest but whose mission I could believe in. Concern Worldwide’s reputation was well-known at Teachers College and when I saw there was an opportunity to work in the domestic education side of it through the Global Concerns Classroom program, I jumped at the opportunity! Luckily, the fit was great and I was hired for the job! I’ve been here for almost a year and half now.
2) What are some of the successes of GCC and what is ahead for 2016?
GCC has been active since 2001, though it has taken on many faces since its conception. One of the strongest aspects of GCC is the content it provides teachers and students through standards-aligned curricula and our global issue guides. Because GCC sits under the greater INGO Concern Worldwide, we have access to up-to-date material on global issues. We source our information directly from our teams in the field so we can best capture what’s happening around the world and make it accessible for the US classroom.
All our resources are completely free of charge as well and as streamlined, easy to implement as possible for our teachers. Having been teachers ourselves, team GCC is always teacher-conscious and we hear great things from our participating teachers about the resources we provide, which gives us pride in our work! You can read more about our approach to programming on our website!
The last two years, we’ve focused our yearlong programming on Innovations in Global Health and Global Climate Impact. The yearlong program includes standards-aligned curriculum in the fall (5-6 lessons, 50 minutes each), Global Youth Summit in the winter, Community Action Plan and a Showcase event the spring, followed by the overseas field visit opportunity in the summer.
For the 2016-17 school year, we will turn our focus to Humanitarian Emergencies. Our curriculum will cover both manmade and natural disasters and how humanitarian organizations like Concern Worldwide respond in times of crisis. The lessons will include information about the humanitarian landscape and emphasize the importance of coordination. Our Global Youth Summit in the winter will give students the opportunity to put all this to the test through a simulated emergency scenario. We are very excited for what’s to come!
3) What makes your program unique in the space of global citizenship education?
Besides the fact that all our resources and program participation is completely free of charge, one very unique factor of the GCC program is the annual overseas field visit. After participating in the various components of our program throughout the school year, students who are deeply interested in the global issues they’ve learned about are invited by their teachers to apply for a field visit opportunity.
Chosen students (and their teachers!) spend a week visiting Concern Worldwide programs in the field, with previous trips to Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia. This experience is hugely impactful for students as they are able to complicate and deepen their understanding of development work. You can read about our students’ experience last summer in Ethiopia on the GCC Blog!
Student alumni of our field visits have gone on to explore college degrees and career tracks in this field, citing their GCC/Concern experience as an inspiration. Teachers who participate in the visit find they are better equipped to talk about global citizenship topics in the classrooms back home and are more motivated to include global concepts in the topics they teach. We are thrilled to be able to provide such a special opportunity for our students and teachers!
4) What resources do you have for teachers?
We have ten global issue guides focusing on major humanitarian and development issues in various countries, seven standards-aligned, ready-to-go unit plans (5-6 lessons, 50 minutes each), student narrated videos, and classroom posters to help teachers get the conversation started. Most recently, we’ve added an issue guide and unit plan on Climate Change in Niger. Our Water poster is very popular!
All of our resources are available on our website for free in PDF downloadable format. Teachers can also request hard copies of our issue guides for their classroom library. In 2015, we received dozens of requests from teachers all over the world, impacting hundreds of students.
In addition, teachers are welcome to request any other needs they may have for teaching global issues in the classroom and we do our best to provide guidance and additional resources.
(sample video from GCC)
5) Are you seeing more schools in the USA making a move toward global education?
Yes, definitely! We are continually hearing from teachers all over the US seeking resources on global topics. Most recently, I’ve noticed a trend at the state-level for creating a global citizenship certification program for high school students. A lot of times, it’s the teachers themselves who are leading these campaigns to make global education a priority and to create incentives for their students to take part. States like Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, and others are at various levels for making the certification program a reality. With these programs in effect, we hope that our resources will help fill any gaps teachers and administrators experience in their need for curriculum. Very exciting to see global education trending, especially since, from my conversations with teachers and students, it’s what they want to be teaching and learning!
6) How can schools get involved with GCC?
Currently, our yearlong program is available to high schoolers in NYC, Chicago, and Boston metro-areas. Any educator that fits those two criteria (geography and grade-level) are welcome to register on our website for next year’s program on Humanitarian Emergencies. Once registered, teachers will receive further information on the details of the programming, including curriculum and dates for events.
For those who don’t quite fit the bill, we have amazing online resources, PDF-downloadable and for free! If you’re a teacher looking to teach about global issues, you will find global issue guides per topic and by country on our site. In addition, there are 5-6 lesson (50 minutes each) unit plans on topics like Climate Change, Child Survival, Displacement, Education, HIV and AIDS, Hunger, and Water. There are also student-narrated videos to play in the classroom, as well as classroom posters to get the conversation started!
If teachers have other needs related to teaching global issues, we are always ready to receive requests and provide whatever resources and assistance!
7) It has been a pleasure. What final words do you have for readers?
Having worked with teachers the last couple of years on global citizenship education through GCC, I see first-hand the demand on teachers from all sides – administrators, students, guardians, and peers. It can be challenging in such a shifting educational environment to continue to provide great learning for students with energy and without losing sight of what is at stake – after all, the next generation of leaders are in the classrooms today!
In the last two years, I’ve also seen amazing teachers who are so dedicated to their work, which inspires me continuously to provide them with the most effective and streamlined tools to make their jobs easier. I will never forget last fall in Chicago, when a teacher came up to me after our professional development session – she hugged me and explained that she’s been looking for something like the GCC program for her students and she’s so thrilled that she’s found it!
Global citizenship education is quickly becoming essential to better prepare students for the 21st-century and to generally provide them with critical perspective on global issues. I am happy to be a part of the work that is making this happen!
This past summer the first annual Untold History Institute was held in New York City. The event was attended by mostly secondary educators from multiple states. I had the honor of leading a workshop that weekend on Globalizing US History. The institute coincided with Untold History’s release in Brazil this July. Having lived there for 6 years, I can easily imagine what book stores in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro would be featuring the text. But I digress… In addition to the workshops, Oliver Stone attended a viewing of an episode of the multi-volume documentary. Following the airing, Mr. Stone along with Dr. Peter Kuznick and myself took part in a panel discussion and Q and A session with the audience moderated by former NCSS President and current state Social Studies Consultant for Connecticut Stephen Armstrong.
(L – R) Armstrong, Perrier, Kuznick, and Stone
Incidentally, the documentary series is excellent. I especially enjoy the later episodes that focus on the Clinton – Obama administrations.
So, how does this all get us back to the purpose of this post? As an educator I believe it is important to start with and be able to answer the “Why?” of teaching and learning. Simply put, I should be able to provide valid rationales (both mine and others, for example the La Pietra Report) for instructional, assessment, content, and student outcome decisions. But at the Untold History Institute, participants came to the event with the “Why?” already answered.
This freed up time to address the “How?” of globalizing US History. This is an equally important question that moves theory into practice. I must note, the general feeling among teachers was to start small and build from there. Moreover, because time is precious, finding and sharing of resources that can be used to globalize US History is a practice we encourage.
Regardless of the approach(es) you use, teachers must decide how they will frame the nation as a tool for historical investigation with their students. Each of the approaches recognizes the nation-state as a way to explore the past, but assert that using the nation as a lens to the past is not the only way or the best way for students to conceptualize history.
Below, I have provided an overview of the 4 approaches I used in the workshop. Please note, it is better not to view these as mutually exclusive. Rather these 4 approaches have nuances that distinguish them from each other but still overlap or are used in tandem.
1) Comparative Approach: Framing US events, people, ideas etc. in relation to a non-US equivalent. By doing this, students are provided a context and relational view.
-Example: Everything is relative, but conclusions can be made/argued in context. Comparison informs our claims about “how revolutionary the American Revolution was” or “how powerful is the US economy.”
World War 2 Casualties: An animated data-driven documentary about war and peace, The Fallen of World War II looks at the human cost of the second World War and sizes up the numbers to other wars in history, including trends in recent conflicts..
2) Transnational Approach:The nation is not the focus of historical engagement. Rather ideas, groups, events etc are recognized as phenomenon that cross borders. In addition, historical actors in this approach are not the common textbook actors. In turn, terms like hybridity, interaction, fusion, synthesis etc are used in opposition to claims of self-contained, static, packaged national/cultural units.
-Example: This was the approach the summer workshop teachers used (they blew me away). Their topic was looking at emancipation from a transnational perspective. This recognizes that ideas travel and are guided by people and groups and not necessarily by nations or governments.
3) Non-US Perspective about “US” Events: At the heart of this approach is the question, “Can we learn about ourselves from the way others see us?” Teachers use non-US perspectives to question national claims, beliefs, and preconceived notions about US history.
-Example: The sky is the limit. The book History Lessons (below) is an interesting start by looking at how textbooks around the world introduce US history. In my experience, the Civil War and Civil Rights era are commonly explored from a non-US perspective.
4)Thematic Approach: US events are situated as an example of larger themes in world history. It is important to note that global events retain local/national variations and are not seen as simply repeated events. In this approach US is part of world history, not an exceptional other.
-Example: The American Civil War had a global impact. Framing the war as part of a trend in world history that centralized political power and secured national boundaries places our historical view at 80,000 feet.
-Sample Resource: I created this ThingLink tool to visualize the claim above.
In Joseph Heller’s Catch 22 the exchange between a young US soldier and older Italian is one of my favorites. What do you make of it? Does it relate to any contemporary events? What about the impact of nuclear weapons on global politics and power? Is morality a national or human universal?
Anyway, I am going to finish with this short list of resources. They have all influenced my thinking, teaching, and world view. Lastly, on Wednesday, November 18th at 6:00 PM EST I will be leading a session on this topic during the 2015 Global Education Conference. Stop in if you can (it’s online) or watch the recording. More to come…
Suggested Books thatHelp You Globalize US History
History Lessons (2004) –Dana Lindaman and Kyle Ward: The widely contrasting approaches to U.S. history that can be found in the textbooks of other nations.
Transnational Nation (2007) – Ian Tyrrell: The development of nationalism, movement of peoples, imperialism, industrialization, environmental change and the struggle for equality are all key themes in the study of both US history and world history.
America in the World (2007) – Carl Guarneri: This text examines how larger global processes have had a role in each stage of American development, how this country’s experiences were shared by people elsewhere, and how America’s growing influence ultimately changed the world.
American Compared Vol 1 and 2 (2006) – Carl Guarneri: Ideal for instructors seeking to present U.S. history in a global context, this innovative reader pairs comparative readings on key issues such as slavery, immigration, imperialism, civil rights, and western expansion.
The Twentieth Century World and Beyond (2011) – William Keylor: The book’s unique analytical framework–which focuses on the relationships between and among countries rather than on individual histories–helps students easily examine how the nations of the world have interacted since the beginning of the last century.
Among Empires (2007) – Charles Maier: The book’s unique analytical framework–which focuses on the relationships between and among countries rather than on individual histories–helps students easily examine how the nations of the world have interacted since the beginning of the last century.
A Nation Among Nations (2006) – Thomas Bender: Thomas Bender recasts the developments central to American history by setting them in a global context, and showing both the importance and ordinariness of America’s international entanglements over five centuries.
America on the World Stage (2008) – Gary Reichard and Ted Dickson: Each xhapter covers a specific chronological period and approaches fundamental topics and events in United States history from an international perspective, emphasizing how the development of the United States has always depended on its transactions with other nations for commodities, cultural values, and populations.
The Declaration of Independence: A Global History (2007) – Dave Armitage: In a stunningly original look at the American Declaration of Independence, David Armitage reveals the document in a new light: through the eyes of the rest of the world. Not only did the Declaration announce the entry of the United States onto the world stage, it became the model for other countries to follow.
The Global Cold War (2007) – Odd Westad: This volume shows how the globalization of the Cold War during the 20th century created the foundations for most of today’s key international conflicts, including the “war on terror.”
The Wilsonian Moment (2009) –Erez Manela: This book is the first to place the 1919 Revolution in Egypt, the Rowlatt Satyagraha in India, the May Fourth movement in China, and the March First uprising in Korea in the context of a broader “Wilsonian moment” that challenged the existing international order.
Teaching Global History (2011) –Alan Singer: The text challenges prospective and beginning social studies teachers to formulate their own views about what is important to know in global history and why. It explains how to organize the curriculum around broad social studies concepts and themes and student questions about humanity, history, and the contemporary world.
Teaching Recent Global History (2014) – Diana Turk et al.: The authors’ unique approach unites historians, social studies teachers, and educational curriculum specialists to offer historically rich, pedagogically innovative, and academically rigorous lessons that help students connect with and deeply understand key events and trends in recent global history.
Rethinking American History in the Global Age (2002) – Thomas Bender: In rethinking and reframing the American national narrative in a wider context, the contributors to this volume ask questions about both nationalism and the discipline of history itself. The essays offer fresh ways of thinking about the traditional themes and periods of American history.
The Savage Wars of Peace (2002, 2014) – Max Boot: America’s smaller actions—such as the recent conflicts in Bosnia, Somalia, Haiti, Kosovo, and Afghanistan—have made up the vast majority of our military engagements, and yet our armed forces do little to prepare for these “low intensity conflicts.”A compellingly readable history of the forgotten wars that helped promote America’s rise in the last two centuries.
When I am asked by people for advice or have the ears of social studies educators I work with (rookie or veteran) I like to share this bit of advice– “Each year, be sure to add at least one new aspect of teaching to your repertoire.” I have come to consider this sentiment to be a core belief, maybe wisdom at this point, of my professional philosophy and personal world view.
This synthesis of professional and personal convictions reminds me of scholar Lee Shulman’s concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Shulman stressed the interplay of two domains often considered to be exclusive aspects of K-16 teaching: subject matter expertise and instruction. He reminds us,
“If teachers are to be successful they would have to confront both issues (of content and pedagogy) simultaneously, by embodying the aspects of content most germane to its teachability… It represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction.” (Shulman, 1986, p. 8-9)
Here is Shulman in 2011 reflecting on teaching and education. The 55 minutes are well worth it. So get a coffee and some ice cream, and enjoy!
Welcome back. In 1987 Shulman co-authored an article I consider part of the pedagogical canon, “150 different ways of knowing: Representations of knowledge in teaching.” In essence, a synthesis of understanding by the teacher is part of each class and, in turn, the educator’s professional expertise. For example, using a high school English class reading Uncle Tom’s Cabin as an example, pedagogical uses of literature and the role of discussion as an instructional strategy in uncovering meanings in the work, combined with subject matter knowledge of the history of slavery and abolition can be represented using a simple Venn diagram labeled with Shulman’s theory.
So, from Shulman, I return to my very simple recommendation: expand your instructional repertoire every year by trying something new that can help students engage with your content. This summer my goal was…well still is… to improve my expertise with a range of educational technology tools so that I can use them with my students and promote them among my colleagues. Each of them can be used with online, traditional and blended approaches to teaching and learning. Moreover, the 6 tools below are applicable to a range of content areas. Mastering them and then using them with intent in your classes will place you in that sweet spot of Shulman’s Venn diagram.
This tool “develops interactive images that help students develop 21st-century skills and enrich their enthusiasm for learning… It’s an engaging, all-inclusive tool for students to demonstrate their learning, though its full potential depends on how teachers use it.”
I am super excited about this one. You, and your students, can take any image (including maps, political cartoons, data charts, etc.) and add information to it – explanatory notes, prompts and questions, video, additional information, links, etc. I created this one below to collect the Atlantic World via music. In the end, with ThingLink, your creativity, content knowledge. and instructional vision is the limit.
9 Songs About Society from the Atlantic World, 1957-1988
2) Google Cultural Institute: Historic Moments (Online Exhibits/Content) From the f0lks at Google, the Historic Moment portal to their umbrella website “Cultural Institute” provides “online exhibitions detailing the stories behind significant moments in human history. Each exhibition tells a story using documents, photos, videos and in some cases personal accounts of events.” Wow! Be sure to explore tutorials on the site or a growing repository by people online. The content is growing and is useful for online, face to face, ad blended approaches to teaching about the past. So far, my two favorites are “The Second World War in 100 Objects” and “Nelson Mandela: One Man’s Memory.” Bookmark this one and share it far and wide.
3) Joomla!(Content Management Platform) “A content management platform is software that keeps track of every piece of content on your Web site, much like your local public library keeps track of books and stores them. Content can be simple text, photos, music, video, documents, or just about anything you can think of. A major advantage of using a CMS is that it requires almost no technical skill or knowledge to manage. A mobile-ready and user-friendly way to build your website. Choose from thousands of features and designs. Joomla! is free and open source.” How do you organize and present you resources to students? Where can students interact with the assignments, resources, and assessments you create and use? Joomla is ideal for creating your own electronic portfolio as well and getting your research out in the public sphere.
4) Social Explorer (Visualizing Data): This tool was introduced to me by my colleague, Patti Winch. See, sharing does work! “Social Explorer provides quick and easy access to current and historical census data and demographic information. The easy-to-use web interface lets users create maps and reports to illustrate, analyze, and understand demography and social change.” Amazingly, it contains data from each census back to 1790! I am excited to tap into this tool with gusto. Take a look at what can be done.
5) Screencast-o-matic (Presentations) –Screencast-o-matic is video and audio screen capture software. In the classroom, Screencast-o-matic is useful for recording audio commentary on student writing, recording a mini-lecture, narrating a presentation, or any other function you can think of! Ok, so this isn’t a new one for me, but they have recently expanded by adding a bunch of new features. So, I need to catch up. I have students create their own explaining their final paper topic Here is a short example of a screencast I made and use in class.
6) Ted Ed: Lessons Worth Sharing:(Online Lessons) “TED-Ed’s commitment to creating lessons worth sharing is an extension of TED’s mission of spreading great ideas. Within TED-Ed’s growing library of lessons, you will find carefully curated educational videos, many of which represent collaborations between talented educators and animators nominated through the TED-Ed platform.”
My goal is to submit a lesson that will be accepted and then made into a Ted Ed lesson. Review your resources, and your colleagues (because you can nominate teachers too) for outstanding lessons. We all have gems that should be shared with as many educators and students.
Now, if these tools have not captured your interest, check out these two lists for more options.
So, where can this bring us. Back to Shulman of course, and then beyond. By recognizing educational technology as a domain of knowledge for educators’ to master, we transfer PCK to TPCK. “Technological pedagogical content knowledge refers to the knowledge and understanding of the interplay between CK, PK and TK when using technology for teaching and learning (Schmidt, Thompson, Koehler, Shin, & Mishra, 2009). It includes an understanding of the complexity of relationships between students, teachers, content, practices and technologies (Archambault & Crippen, 2009).”
Whatever tools you add to your repertoire, I say congratulations! You have modeled life-long learning and are an inspiration to your students and colleagues. Let me know what works for you, suggest additional tools, and stay in touch via twitter: @CraigPerrier
The last weekend of June 2015 was fantastic. Among other things, it included a Sunday meetup at ISTE 2015 in Philadelphia, PA (by the way, one of my favorite spots, the Reading Terminal Market, is located across the street from the convention center). This was my first ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education) conference, and I am hooked. The multi day event showcases the newest, nest, and innovations in education technology. Global educators are, quite often, success users of technology in the classroom. So this marriage of Ed Tech and Global Ed makes perfect sense. Check it out:
Now, back to Sunday, June 28th. The meetup I attended was a three hour event called Global Education Day. The amazing Lucy Gray, and incredible Steve Hargadon, in cooperation with VIF International Education, organized and sponsored the meetup which turned out to be a global education jam session!
Gray and Hargadon are the creators of one of my favorite annual events – the Global Education Conference a free week-long online event bringing together educators and innovators from around the world. The sixth annual is Monday, November 16 through Thursday, November 19, 2015. The entire conference is virtual and will take place online in webinar format. Sessions are held around the clock to accommodate participant time zones. You can search and view archived recordings of past sessions. I hope you attend, and present, in November. The call for proposals is now open.
In addition to outstanding networking, the event generated was a wishlist of resources and opportunities for global educators and their students. Speaking of wishlists… how about Pearl Jam in Argentina 2013:
Ok, back to the conference. Below you can find a number of the resources that were shared at the Global Ed Day Meet-up. To do so, participants used three formats (below) and you can view the tweets that day at : #globaled15
Round table discussion
Cool Tool Duels (my personal favorite format!)
So, what are you going to adopt for next year? Explore them all, share them with your colleagues and network, and most importantly implement them with your students next school year. Have fun exploring the resources. Your students will benefit from your decision adding a global dimension to their education.
Cool Tool Duels This activity focused on participants showing one tool or web site to the audience that could be used to promote global collaboration. I did #3, Face to Faith. Time limit is only 2 minutes per person. I loved this strategy and is something I will be using at my future department chair meetings. 3-2-1… Go
Greetings from San Diego! I recently had the pleasure of co-teaching an AP US History class on 20th Century US Foreign Policy. The teacher, Mr. John Struck – 2014 Winner of the Gilder-Lehrman VA teacher of the year, and I created an “Opposing Viewpoints” lesson around the claim of “US Interwar Isolationism.” The lesson targeted the course’s newly established Historical Thinking Skills . Specifically, we focused on these two: Historical argumentation and Appropriate use of relevant historical evidence and challenged students to formulate a short essay response based on the following sources:
Our two 15 min presentations
Prior knowledge (class textbook etc.)
A general Q and A session where students could ask the presenters to clarify, elaborate etc.
Structured small group discussions among students on how they would form their reply
This approach to teaching and learning about the past, that is presenting students with a provocative question followed my multiple, opposing historical narratives (or constructed claims about the past) is an effective approach grounded in constuctivist theory. In this class the guiding question was “To what extent can US interwar foreign policy be considered isolationist?” In addition, students were exposed to content relevant concepts including “Soft Power”, “Hard Power”, “Agency”, and “Multi-lateral.”
In the 1987 Metahistory, historian Hayden Whitesketches this pluralistic standpoint as such: “we are free to conceive ‘history’ as we please, just as we are free to make of it what we will” (p. 433). In such a climate, the plurality of narratives, readings, and interests foregrounds polyphony, or in Ihab Hassan’s term “multivocation,” a postmodern feature that maintains that there exist multiple versions of reality or truths as read, seen, and interpreted from different perspectives.
Or, as French Philosopher Paul Ricoeur encapsulated and reminded us: “If it is true that there is always more than one way of construing a text, it is not true that all interpretations are equal.”
Fast forward to a 2015 article by Stephane Levesque, Probing the Historical Consciousness of Canadiansand you can see this congealing of history education, narrative, and identity. Levesque, professor of education at the University of Ottawa asks important and complex questions related to these themes:
Is identity a key factor to relating to history?
What historical sources do people consider trustworthy?
How do they construct a sense of the collective past?
How should classroom teachers engage students…in learning national history?
What role should this kind of survey play in evaluating students’ prior historical knowledge and thinking?
Ultimately, Levesque notes the disconnect between High School History teachers and historical research and the subsequent difficulty to enact change at the secondary level. “Scholarly knowledge by itself is not enough to change practice. Simply telling teachers… about new evidence and urging them to change their practice is rather ineffective.”
I disagree with Levesque’s point somewhat. I have had multiple opportunities to work with scholars that brought about an expansion of my knowledge base and powerful reflection about my practice. I urge high school teachers to seek out these opportunities and in fact attempt to create such connections in m y current position.
Enter Dr. Eric Singer and Oliver Stone’s Untold History project. I had a chance to talk with Singer, Historian, Principal Researcher and Educational Outreach Coordinator for Untold History of the United States. The discussion added to the topics mentioned above and highlighted what the project offers teachers, including free resources and a summer institute.
Hi Eric. Thank you for taking some time to discuss history education. Who is involved in the Untold History of the United States project and what has been your outreach to educators?
Involvement expands by the day. Since late 2012, we have brought together a veritable army of people who crave an alternative to traditional historical narratives that have persisted for way too long. Teachers, administrators, curriculum writers, activists, public intellectuals, journalists and academics have helped us organize screenings, develop curriculum, establish a vibrant website, organize speaking engagements and facilitate cross-disciplinary communication.
In 2012 I took on the role of Educational Outreach Coordinator for a new Untold History Education Project. Since then, we have keynoted several social studies and education conferences including NCSS 2013 and ALA 2013. We have also anchored scores of other events including a discussion with students at Stuyvesant High School in New York, the commemoration of the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, AR and the keynote of the 2015 Northern Nevada Council of Social Studies conference. Along the way, we established an advisory group for the project that includes award-winning master teachers, curriculum specialists, leaders in the social studies field, academics and activists.
Describe your resources and opportunities for educators and students.
We developed a curriculum guide to go along with the Untold History documentary and books. The guide, which is aligned to the California State Social Studies Standards, is designed with Common Core in mind. It is available for free on our website. The lesson plans contained within are all primary source-based, inductive and mindful of multiple teaching and learning styles. They provide suggestions for teachers, but are flexibly crafted so that teachers can exercise their own creativity and employ their own expertise.
In December, we released Volume 1 of the Untold History Young Readers’ Edition, which boils down the content of the series and original adult book for middle and early high school students. Volume 1 covers Reconstruction, war profiteering during World War I, the causes of the Great Depression, World War II and the decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The original Untold History book is currently being used in AP and other upper-level high school classrooms across the country and around the world. Volumes 2, 3 and 4 are now in production and will be released in 2016 and 2017.
Any new plans or events coming up in the future?
In July, we will host the first annual Untold History summer teaching institute, Teaching “Untold” History. The institute, which will run from Friday, July 10 through Sunday, July 12 is open to all middle and high school teachers.
Topics of concentration will include “Moving Beyond the Textbook,” “Globalizing US History” and “Deconstructing Engrained Narratives.” This experience will be valuable to teachers of AP and IB instructional programs, as well as teachers of non-affiliated curriculum. The ultimate goal is to establish methods that empower students to think critically about history and the world around them, so that they may become better informed participants in the democratic process.
The institute will also attempt to critique historiographical approaches to instruction. Ultimately, we will publish our curricular products on the Untold History website, making them available to teachers across the country and around the world. We will also seek out other potential venues for publication and outreach.
Thank you Eric. I am looking forward to the July Conference!
Information on the Conference is Provided Below. Hope to see you there.
Teaching “Untold” History Summer Institute July 10-12, 2015
East Side Middle School 331 E. 91st St.
New York, NY
Please join us for an exciting and invigorating weekend as we explore ways to engage multiple historical perspectives in the classroom. Historians, master teachers and curriculum specialists will lead intimate, interactive weekend-long workshops⎯out of which will come tangible curriculum designed for teaching some of the most controversial topics in recent history.
Director Oliver Stone and Historian Peter Kuznick, co-writers of the Showtime documentary series Untold History of the United States and companion book, are scheduled to participate.
This experience will be valuable for
Middle and High School US History Teachers working with Common Core requirements
Middle and High School US History Teachers working in non-Common Core environments
Any teacher interested in developing ways to teach multiple perspectives to diverse groups of students.
There is a $200 fee to attend, which covers the cost of speakers and 2 meals/day. Attendees will also receive:
Continuing education certificates
Copies of Untold History DVD, book and Young Readers’ Edition
Resources produced from the workshop
Networking opportunities with public historians, academics and curriculum specialists
Copies of the Untold History of the United States curriculum guide, designed to accompany each episode of the documentary series.
We have reserved a block of rooms at the Courtyard New York Marriott Upper East Side. Rooms with 1 king bed are $195/nt, 2 queen beds $215/nt.
It will be possible to share rooms in order to minimize costs.
For more information on institute content, lodging options or to register, please contact:
Eric Singer, MEd, PhD Principal Researcher and Educational Outreach Coordinator Untold History Education Project
The European Enlightenment is a fun topic to teach. Teachers that tap into their creative energies design classes that have students wrestle with big ideas, nurture their curiosity through inquiry, and evaluate how concepts from the past manifest and impact them today. The cast of Enlightenment characters invites the opportunity for students to engage in a “talking heads” activity, Socratic seminar, or simulate a French salon (indeed a great idea and one that could be conducted repeatedly throughout eras and with different settings).
Check out this example:
Another interesting aspect of the European Enlightenment is the connection to US History Survey classes. The flow of socio-political ideas was not restricted to the continent. Moreover, the Enlightenment is a great way to introduce the concept of transnational approaches to history which emphasizes the import of flow and hybridity of ideas across national borders and, in this case, across the Atlantic.
But all too often, the European Enlightenment cast of historical characters, like those in other types of historical narratives, has become static. This is limitation is, whether in a World or US history class, unfortunate. You can probably identify the usual suspects. As you watch the trailer below, give it a shot:
So, who did you come up with – Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire? By this role call, the European Enlightenment, revolves on a Anglo-Franco axis. This review from NYS regents exam (below) reinforces that standard narrative as does U.S. History.org and Hippocampus.
Certainly, the European Enlightenment has more influential thinkers and from other parts of the continent. Who gets left out, and marginalized is just as important as who gets emphasized in history. Teachers should expand the number and geographic range of thinkers. This empowers students’ through a broader content knowledge base and skillset development including application, conceptual thinking, and global awareness.
Here are my suggestions for 5 additions to the standard European Enlightenment. None are from the UK! Take a look and let me know what you think and who should be included!
1) Emer de Vattel, 1714 -1767 (Swiss)- When Vattel’s Law of Nations(1758) was translated to English in 1760, it provided a foundation for national government and identity. Ben Franklin shared copies of the text with other revolutionary brothers in the Continental Congress. Vattel’s words “A nation is…a society of men untied together for the purpose of promoting their mutual safety and advantage by their combined strength” manifest in the US Constitution a generation later. Historian David Armitage notes that Vattell’s writing argued that nations have a right to existence, independence, and equality. Undoubtedly, this geo-political world view shaped American Independence.
Big Ideas: International Law, Republicanism, Recognizing New Nations
Did you know? George Washingtonborrowed The Law of Nations on 5 October 1789 from the New York Society Library.Washington had never returned the book . The former president’s overdue fines, it has been calculated, would theoretically amount to $300,000. After learning of the situation, staff at Washington’s home in Mount Vernon, offered to replace Vattel’s “Law of Nations” with another copy of the same edition.
2) Hugo Grotius, 1583 -1648 (Dutch) – Does the concept “natural rights” sound familiar? If not, here it is referenced in the Declaration of Independence “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” Indeed, Grotius is the giant that Jefferson, Adams, and their contemporaries stood on to see further and establish the Empire of Liberty. If you really want to challenge one of the sacred ideas of the American identity, put forth the idea that the founding father of America wasn’t American. Check this article out.
Big Ideas: Natural Law, Just War Theory.
More Information: Thomas Jefferson’s library included Grotius 1694 The Truth of the Christian Religion.Jefferson made numerous marginal comments. Also, John Adams reference Grotius frequently in his early (pre-1776) opposition writings targeting English law noting that “sovereignty resided in the hands of the people.”
3) Cesare Beccaria, 1738 -1794 (Italian) – Of my four suggestions, Beccaria has the most potential to be someone already taught or referenced by teachers. Still, he is not solidified as a Enlightenment elite – but deserves to be. His On Crimes and Punishment (1764) tackles topics like torture and capital punishment. Hmmm, sound familiar as contemporary topics? He was also a prominent contributor to the Enlightenment journal called Il Caffe (The Coffeehouse) .
Big Ideas: Jurisprudence, Constitutional Law
Historical Scholarship: In Faces of Revolution, Historian Bernard Bailyn claims “In every colony and in every legislature there were some people who new Locke and Beccaria, Montesquieu and Voltaire.” In addition, Gordon Wood, in The Empire of Liberty, recognizes Beccaria’s influence stating that “many of the state constitutions of 1776 evoked…Beccaria and promised to end punishments that were ‘cruel and unusual’ and to make them ‘lass sanguinary, and in general more proportionate to the crimes.”
4) Olympe de Gouges 1748 – 1793 (French) – Yes, this selection supports the unsatisfying Anglo-French referenced above. However, she expands female representation in the European Enlightenment usually reserved for Mary Wollenscroft. De Gouges violated boundaries that most of the revolutionary leaders wanted to preserve and was guillotined in Paris on the 3rd November 1793.
5) Baron Samuel von Pufendorf, 1632 – 1694 (German) – In our globalized world, von Pufendorf’s sentiment about the import of being globally aware, or having a cosmopolitan ethic, is highly relevant today: “those who have the Supream Administration of Affairs, are oftentimes not sufficiently instructed concerning the Interest both of their own State, as also that of their Neighbours.” Pufendorf, influenced by Grotius, asserted that international law extends to all nations, emphasizing that all nations are part of humanity.
Big Ideas: Natural Law, History, International Relations
So it is fair to say that the social, cultural, and political legacy of the European Enlightenment is much more expansive than the Anglo-French narrative espoused in current high school textbooks, curricula narratives and standards. Expanding, problematizing, and offering alternative narratives is an enriching part of historical study. Providing alternatives, possibilities, and being explicit about the concept of narratives is an Enlightening exercise for your students to engage with is valuable regardless of whether yours students have an end of year exam or not.
Were you at the 94th Annual NCSS conference last month? It was indeed an exciting conference, “Education professionals gathered last month in Boston to explore best practices and inquiry-based teaching of social studies, boosting well-rounded civic learning and building 21st-century skills and social studies disciplinary literacy.” If you were unable to attend the national conference, don’t fret. A list of regional/state events for 2015 are posted here.
One of my personal highlights was getting to introduce this year’s winner of the Global Understanding Award, Kim Young. Meeting her reminded me anthropologist Anna Tsing ‘s 2005 work Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Tsing asserts
“Global connections are made in fragments- although some fragments are more powerful than others…they interrupt dominant stories of globalization to offer more realistic alternatives. Such fragments…create a world of global connections made, and muddled, in friction. Curiosity about such friction might reopen the mystery of our time.”
It take a special teacher to seek out experiences, fragmented and with potential friction, and share them with her students. Then, once back in the classroom, that same remarkable teacher is able to inspire students about the narratives, realities, and friction of globalization. And, ultimately, those lucky students’ curiosity is sustained for their lifespan because of the teacher’s guidance.
I had the pleasure to interview one of those teachers, Kim Young. Our exchange is below. Enjoy!
1- Tell us about yourself. How did you get into teaching? What and who do you teach?
Kim on one of her adventure, educational excursions…see what “Yes” can get you?!
Hello readers! My name is Kim Young. I’ve been teaching World History at Weston High School in Weston, Massachusetts for 10 years. I’ve also helped spearhead many of my district’s efforts to globalize our curriculum as Global Education Coordinator. I think I’m one of those people who have always been a teacher. My mom was a teacher and my first jobs were as a camp counselor and coach. Growing up, I always remembered how my teachers presented lesson plans, and which methods were most engaging and effective. I enjoy teaching because I get to live my passion for global cultures everyday.
2- Who or what inspired you to apply to the NCSS award? How did you decide on your submission?
Necessity! I am taking an unpaid leave from my teaching position this winter to pursue a Fulbright Distinguished Award in Teaching grant. I was scouring the internet for creative sources of funding and came across the NCSS Award. Luckily, I have supportive colleagues who helped me with the process when I mentioned the idea to them. I knew right away I would submit my “Complicating Conquest: Rethinking the Spanish Invasion of the Americas” curriculum. I feel this is the most innovative and interesting piece of curriculum I’ve developed. It is based entirely on visual, physical, and written primary sources I collected while traveling in Mexico and Peru. The goals of the lessons are truly global and nothing you could ever find in a high school textbook. I hope readers who teach the Age of Exploration or the European colonization of the Americas will check out the curriculum.
3- What have been some of the successes and challenges of using global perspectives with your students?
Great question. As with many things, I think my greatest successes have come from my greatest challenges. Recently, I’ve really been influenced by an article written by Milton J. Bennett on intercultural communication. He writes, “Common sense is, of course, common only to a particular culture.” For 9th graders, developmentally, it is hard to understand the world from a different perspective. I struggling with training (or retraining) students’ brains to observe and ask questions before making judgments—what my students often refer to as “Don’t yuck someone else’s yum.” I feel most successful when I hear students using the words worldview, perspective, and subjectivity when talking about history. Moving students to action is also always challenging because in many ways, the traditional school day model does not support this type of learning. Bennett writes, “Understanding objective culture may create knowledge, but it doesn’t necessarily generate competence.” If my students are going to be truly globally competent, they need to act based on their emerging globalized perspective.
4- How have your colleagues reacted to your interest in global education?
Everyone is incredibly supportive, even if they don’t always understand why I want to travel to a certain location. They ask me about all of my adventures and are open to trying out the new curricular ideas I bring back. They collaborate with me about how to best support exchange students in our school. They let me decorate their classroom with new artifacts I’ve brought back. I am also very fortunate to have a district that has made promoting Global Education one of its 5 year goals. What I do find most puzzling is when I meet educators who say, “I wish I could do what you do!” For most educators, I don’t see many real reasons holding them back from pursuing different opportunities—you just have to apply. Don’t be overwhelmed, you’ll be amazed at how things fall into place.
5- You showed us this painting during your presentation, The Last Supper by Marcos Zapata (1753, in the Cuzco Cathedral). Tell us about it and how it represents your approach to teaching students.
Guinea Pig? “Don’t yuck someone else’s yum.”
I love this painting! It is by Marcos Zapata and located in the Cusco Cathedral. This painting is totally representative of my teaching philosophy. Firstly, it is visual. I like to expose students to different types of sources—too often they think history only comes in text. I try to emphasize to my students who struggle with reading that if they can remember images and know how to decode them, they can think just as analytically as when reading a document. Secondly, it’s a primary source. Once students have some context, I like them to work with primary sources since it helps them better understand the perspective of the culture they are studying. This lends itself to my inquiry-based style of teaching. I like to give students evidence with guided questions and have them do the investigating. This way students’ construct their own knowledge and learning. Even if students forget what they learn, hopefully they’ve developed skills for investigating questions in the future. In terms of content, this represents my style because I chose curriculum that emphasizes cultural fusion, cooperation, and interaction. War, conflict, and domination are a part of history—this is a narrative of human interaction my students are familiar with. I like to present a counter-narrative to open them up to other ways of viewing history and the world. Finally, this image is engaging, funny, and a little weird (from an American cultural perspective). Students remember this image because the idea of Jesus eating guinea pig is so far from their cultural norms.
6- You offered a lot of advise at NCSS. Can you summarize those tips again?
Absolutely. One of the best parts of winning the award was being able to present at NCSS. It’s a humbling and thought provoking experience to try and share with colleagues what I feel I’ve learned over the last ten years. I also know that educators out there know what to do—we just get too busy, overwhelmed, or stressed. With my presentation, I wanted to given educators permission to do the things we know make good curriculum.
My main message is that it is important to create curriculum with complexity—–and this is something I feel travel/study really allows educators to do. This is how we can move away from textbook based curriculum and engage our students as global learners. Based on my experiences in these programs, here’s my tips on how to make the best curriculum:
1) Abandon efficiency—We never have time to plan during the year. We have to be product driven and use every moment of our time to grade. During summer professional development, give yourself permission to be inefficient. Spend several weeks investigating a topic you are passionate about and interested in. Don’t worry if it only produces one 50-minute lesson.
2) Be a Hoarder—While this is not a culturally acceptable behavior from a Western perspective, in order to create great curriculum, you have to do this. Take a picture of everything you see and collect every brochure, pamphlet, book, and artifact you can find. Many times while traveling I do not fully understand the significance of an object until much later. I come back, reflect, and look through all my discoveries. Only then do I start to see how they might all connect. I go back to pictures and pull out new images as my curriculum changes or as I learn more about a culture.
3) Say “Yes”—Just like that awful Jim Carrey movie. When I’m traveling and collecting curriculum, I say yes to every experience, food, and opportunity. I am often tired, worn out, or uncertain of how something will go. I’ve crashed a wedding, pet a tarantula, and jumped off bridges. None of this was planned or on my itinerary. All of these unexpected experiences gave me insight into cultures different than my own and have come back to influence my curriculum in ways I couldn’t imagine.
4) Use your allies—I have several colleagues and administrators that I have developed relationships with that fully support my efforts. Early in my career, I often would not apply for opportunities because I was nervous about bothering people for recommendations. I was also worried what they would think of me (she thinks she is qualified to participate in THAT program?) I was also afraid of what my colleagues would think of me if I asked for a recommendation and did not get into a program. Over time, I have fully gotten over all of these insecurities! Now, I know, even if its last minute (ie can you write me recommendation in the next 24 hours?), I have a supportive group around me that I am never afraid to ask for help. I also bring them back really cool artifacts from wherever I go.
7- What is next for you?
I’m headed off on my biggest global adventure yet—I will be working and studying in the West Bank from January to March of 2015 as part of a Fulbright Distinguished Award in Teaching grant. I am interested “breaking the binary”—Palestinian identity is often presented in secondary curriculum and Western media as being made up of two choices (ex. One state vs. Two state, Fata vs. Hamas, Israeli vs. Palestinian). We all know in reality things are more grey than just being A or B. I am specifically interested in investigating how to use the graphic arts and graphic novels to do this. If any readers have contacts in the West Bank, please let me know!
8- If you could select three books, films, trips etc about global education for teachers what would they be?
Happy International Education Week! Did you know it was that time of year again or that this is the 15th annual installment? In a recent press statement Secretary of State, John Kerry notes “During this week, literally thousands of events will be held around the world to highlight the benefits of global learning and student exchanges. To understand why this is important, we have only to consider the consequences when people lack what international education provides – namely an objective understanding of the world that exists outside the narrow boundaries of our own communities and lives.”
However, in a potentially confusing move, President Obama released this press statement the same day as Kerry’s proclaiming Nov 16-22, the same as International Week, as “American Education Week.” Huh?! The President declared:
“In a complex world, we must meet new and profound challenges. As a Nation, we must prepare the next generation to face these issues and the problems of their own time. An education equips the leaders of tomorrow with the knowledge and vision they need to discover the solutions of the future and build a better society for their children and grandchildren. This week, we honor the teachers, mentors, and professionals who guide our kids as they explore the world.”
Does this set of educational dichotomies bring ambiguity and confusion – national/international, global/local, narrow boundaries/explore the world. Can this be sorted out? Ok, challenge accepted, I’ll give it a try and look forward to your insights. As my entry point let’s take a travel back in time so we can put our present and future work around global education in proper perspective.
He applies his paradigm of international relations to the field of education – “schools like mine are increasingly being called upon to educate “global citizens” who belong to the world rather than to their nation of birth or state of choice.”
It is highly likely that the school, university, or organization you work for has some explicit or implied conceptualization of global citizenship in a policy, vision, mission statement, or practice. For example, Fairfax County Public Schools has initiated a
Acknowledges and understands diverse perspectives and cultures when considering local, national, and world issuesContributes to solutions that benefit the broader communityCommunicates effectively in multiple languages to make meaningful connectionsPromotes environmental stewardshipUnderstands the foundations of our country and values our rights, privileges and responsibilitiesDemonstrates empathy, compassion and respect for othersActs responsibly and ethically to build trust and lead
new vision for students, Portrait of a Graduate, which includes the theme “Ethical and Global Citizen.” Please note the 5th descriptor (bold/underlined) and its overt connection to the nation. This is not surprising. What Grygiel misses, due to the limits of his field, is that when schools address global citizenship, they are talking about fostering a world view and habits-of-mind which compliment globalization. This type of education is not about addressing a legal distinction or an implied threat to nationalism.
He claims nationalism and identify are synonyms – “They (citizens) stand on the battlefield or in the public square for the love of their community… from this love…arises a sense of responsibility that motivates us to act and serves as a yardstick for our actions. Without it, action is senseless and rudderless.”
The 1965 work, Is Paris Burning? eloquently narrates the the liberation of Paris in the late Summer of 1944. The title of the book is the Fuhrer’s final communique to the commander he had ordered to turn Paris “into a field of ruins”, General Dietrich von Choltitz. Von Choltitz’s refusal to follow Hitler’s order is evidence of a sensible moral compass not defined by national identity. His, dare I say, act of global citizenship saved the city of light. According to French General Koenig, von Choltitz “had more friends in France than he has in Germany.”
Another way to look at this is the through Gordon Brown’s TED video which addresses these questions: Can the interests of an individual nation be reconciled with humanity’s greater good? Can a patriotic, nationally elected politician really give people in other countries equal consideration?
He equates current globalization to Marxist endeavors – “Local conditions… could be addressed only by the global vision of a united proletariat. The project… in the end…was a failure. I suspect the current global citizenship movement will follow suit.”
Grygiel’s closing sentiment is, at best, a ridiculous scare tactic, and at its worse an insult to any benevolence performed by a human in one location to that in another in the name of compassion and solidarity. It is important to recall and celebrate the realities (and subsequent possibilities) performed by individuals who have internalized global citizenship. What do we make of Eleanor Roosevelt’s supposed impossible task of unifying the United Nations around Universal Human rights?
Professor William Gaudelli’s 2009 article Heuristics of Global Citizenship Discourses towards Curriculum Enhancement,researches five different “types” of global citizenship ideologies: neoliberal, nationalist, Marxist, world justice/governance, and cosmopolitan. While these are not intended to be exhaustive of those ideas in play, I select them for a few reasons. First, they represent a fairly wide swath of global discourse from various points on the political and epistemological landscape. Second, while there are clearly points of agreement among them, there are also tensions, allowing for a more robust conversation. And third, each has a counterpart in curriculum, and manifests in schools in a discernible manner that sets it apart from others.” Take a look at his visual. More importantly, note Grygiel’s limited denunciation of global citizenship as a Marxist legacy..
Global Citizenship: The Legacy of Cosmopolitanism
What is cosmopolitanism? In the 4th century BCE, the classical Greek Cynic, and contemporary of Plato, Diogenes, claimed “I am a citizen of the world” thus rooting the cosmopolitan ethic in western cosmology. This legacy can be traced through a variety of historical sign posts, of which some are identified here.
In 1637 Rene Descartes, in his famous and widely influential work Discourse on Method wrote “It is useful to something of the manners of different nations, that we may be enabled to form a more correct judgement regarding our own, and be prevented from thinking that everything contrary to our customs is ridiculous and irrational – a conclusion usually come to by those whose experience has been limited to their own country.”
Immanuel Kant’s 18th cosmopolitan philosophy focuses on the roll of law, citizenship, nations, and the economy. He predicted people would be part of a global civil order governed by lawful associations. However, Kant argued that “cosmopolitan citizens still needed their individual republics to be citizens at all.” He made sure that he used the phrase “world federation” not “world government.” Typically, people think of the League of Nations or the United Nations. Another Kantian example is the The Maastricht Treaty which integrated European nations around one currency.
Fast forward to the 20th century to Graham Greene’s musing in the novel Our Man in Havana “There are many countries in our blood, aren’t there, but only one person. Would the world be in the mess it is if we were loyal to love and not to countries?” This is a fantastic sentiment that is often drowned out by the drums of war.
To close this post, I end at a monument about 2 miles from where I write this, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial. His quote often surprises people I share it with because of it cosmopolitan view.
“If we are to have peace on earth, our loyalties must become ecumenical rather than sectional. Our loyalties must transcend our race, our tribe, our class, and our nation; and this means we must develop a world perspective.” Christmas sermon, Atlanta, Georgia, 1967.